ISO Standards related to body measurements

Over the last 200 years, Body composition methods have been used to obtain standardized measurements of the human body. One of the most common assessments are Anthropomorphic measurements which involve the size (e.g., height, weight, surface area, and volume), structure (e.g., sitting vs. standing height, shoulder and hip width, arm/leg length, and neck circumference), and composition (e.g., percentage of body fat, water content, and lean body mass) of humans.

This article addresses different ISO standards used for 3D Body scanning in the acquisition of human body shape data and measurements that can be extracted from 3-D scans which ensure quality and easy exchange of information, design, and products.

Explore different relevant metrics from 3D Body scans.

ISO 13688: 2013 defines general compliance specifications for ergonomics, health, size quality, aging, compatibility, and marking of protective clothing as well as details to be supplied by the manufacturer of protective clothes.
The International Standard is meant to be used only in combination with other standards including specific protective performance criteria just not on a stand-alone basis.

ISO 7250-1: 2017 defines anthropometric measures that can be used as a base for population group comparisons and anthropometric database creation (see ISO 15535). The basic list of measurements specified in this document is intended to serve as a reference to ergonomists, who are expected to identify population groups and apply their knowledge to the geometric design of the places where people work and reside. In addition, the list serves as a basis for extracting one- and two-dimensional dimensions from tri-dimensional scans (as defined in ISO 20685). This acts as a reference about how to take anthropometric measures that also provide the ergonomist and designer with details on the anatomical and anthropometric bases and measuring criteria that are implemented throughout the design task solutions.

ISO 8559-1: 2017 provides a description of anthropometric measures that can be used as a basis for creating anthropometric physical and digital databases The list of measures specified in this document is intended to serve as a guide for clothing practitioners who are required to use their expertise to identify segments of the population market and to create size and shape profiles for the creation of all styles of clothing and their equal fit mannequins. The document offers a guide on how to take anthropometric measurements, as well as providing information on the measuring standards and their basic anatomical and anthropometric bases for textile product creation teams and appropriate mannequin manufacturers.

ISO 8559-2: 2017 specifies the primary and secondary measurements for different types of garments to be used under ISO 8559-1 (Body Size Anthropometric Definitions).
The primary aim of this document is to establish a size designation system that can be used by manufacturers and retailers to identify the body proportions of the person the garment is meant to suit customers (in a clear, straightforward, and effective manner). Considering the size of the person’s body (as indicated by the specified dimensions) is calculated in compliance with ISO 8559-1, this classification scheme should encourage the procurement of appropriate garments. The labeling will indicate this detail, etc. The size designation system is based on body measurements, not garment measurements. The choice of garment measurements is normally determined by the designer and the manufacturers who make appropriate allowances to accommodate the type and position of wear, style, cut, and fashion elements of the garment.

ISO 8559-3: 2018 illustrates the principles of the establishment of tables for body measurements, defines the categories of tables (related to intervals), and lists the population groups (infants, girls, boys, children, women, men) and sub-groups to be used for developing ready-to-wear garments. The body measurement tables and intervals are mainly used by the clothing sector to make the development of well-fitting products easier and more accurate.The approach mentioned is focused primarily on the application of statistical analysis, using data from body dimensions. The statistical standard was deliberately held to a low level for making the content readily comprehensible to the widest readership possible.
This methodology applies to various sets of body dimensions. It can be useful to determine intervals for the size designation as described in ISO 8559-2. Values in the tables in this document are examples.
Garment dimensions are not included in this document.
It is necessary to use a general approach providing inbuilt flexibility, to keep the whole sizing system capable of adapting to changes (e.g. demographic criteria), because body shape and proportions for anyone targeted population group differ significantly.
NOTE ISO 15535 can be convenient for recording and organizing the population data.

ISO 4418: 1978 The primary purpose of this and other International Standards in this series is to establish a size designation system that indicates (in a clear, straightforward and substantive manner) the person’s body size to which a garment is intended. Provided that the shape of the person’s body has been accurately determined (as shown by the appropriate dimensions), this system should facilitate the choosing of suitable garments.
The size designation system is based on body and not garment measurements. Choice of garment measurements is normally left to the designer and the manufacturer, who are concerned with style, cut and other fashion elements, and who must make due allowance for garments normally worn beneath a specific garment.

ISO 20685-1: 2018 discusses protocols for the use of 3-D surface scanning systems to acquire data and measurements of the human body shape defined in ISO 7250-1 that can be extracted from 3-D scans.
While mainly concerned with whole-body scanners, it is also applicable to body-segment scanners (head scanners, hand scanners, foot scanners).
It does not apply to instruments that measure the location and/or motion of individual landmarks.
The expected audience is those who use 3-D scanners to create 1-D anthropometric databases and the users of 1-D anthropometric data from 3-D scanners. Although not necessarily aimed at the designers and manufacturers of those systems, scanner designers and manufacturers can find it useful in meeting the needs of customers who build and use 1‑D anthropometric databases.

ISO 20685-2: 2015 addresses guidelines for testing 3-D surface-scanning devices to collect data and measurements on the human body structure. This is not applicable to devices monitoring the movement of specific landmarks.
While mainly concerned with whole-body scanners, it is also applicable to body-segment scanners (head scanners, hand scanners, foot scanners). This International Standard applies to body scanners that measure the human body in a single view. When a hand-held scanner is evaluated, it has to be noted that the human operator can contribute to the overall error. When systems are evaluated in which the subject is rotated, movement artifacts can be introduced; these can also contribute to the overall error. This part of ISO 20685 applies to the landmark positions determined by an anthropometrist. It does not apply to landmark positions automatically calculated by software from the point cloud.
The quality of the surface shape of the human body measurement and landmark positions is influenced by the performance of scanner systems and humans including measurers and subjects. This part of ISO 20685 addresses the performance of scanner systems by using artifacts rather than human subjects as test objects. Traditional instruments are required to be accurate to millimeters. Their accuracy can be verified by comparing the instrument with a scale calibrated according to an international standard of length. To verify or specify the accuracy of body scanners, a calibrated test object with known form and size is used. The target market is those who use 3-D body scanners to create 3-D anthropometric databases like 3-D landmark locations, users of those data, and manufacturers and scanner designers. As section of ISO 20685 intends to provide the basis for the agreement between scanner users and scanner providers on the output of body scanners, as well as between 3-D anthropometric database providers and data users.

ISO 15537: 2004 lays out procedures for assessing the composition of groups of persons whose anthropometric characteristics are meant to reflect the intended user population of any particular object being tested. This refers to the assessment of anthropometric dimensions of manufacturing products and designs having direct contact with the human body or dependent on measurements of the human body, e.g. machinery, work equipment, personal protective equipment ( PPE), consumer goods, workspaces, architectural details or transport equipment. It also refers to the testing of such safety aspects of products that rely on measurements of the human body. It does not discuss certain elements of the task or other requirements, such as information perception (except the geometric arrangement of the viewing targets) and the use of controls (except their geometric placement).

ProtoTech ‘s 3D Measure Up focuses on the development of the latest 3D body processing requirements with a set of ISO-compliant standards and also on a proprietary platform that combines 3D modeling, numerical, and machine learning methods to provide highly precise and efficient identification and measurement.

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Author: Pankaj C.
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